He concludes that both standard Arabic and Syrian Arabic function as speech norms. The Arabic language is a central Semitic language that is the fourth most widely spoken language in the world. Brown (2000) reported that in fact Contrastive Analysis was considered as the last panacea for language teaching problems. However, it is valuable to consider in some detail a few issues that affect the status of these consonants. For the analysis, the works by Manhammed Hassan Abdul Rahman, Farheen Javed, Andrzej Kopczynski, Mona M. Hamad as well as linguistic studies across the cultures of Cambridge and Oxford universities and websites of linguistics and pedagogical universities were used. Great work! If you are a non-native speaker, and you've always wondered how to read and write in Arabic… Therefore the scarcity of information in this area persuaded the researcher to shed the lights on the nature of consonants and vowels in both Khuzestani Arabic and English, eliciting similarities and differences. The Arabic language has complex root-and-pattern morphology, where root is based on the main frame of consonants. Focusing on consonants we drew out the similarities and differences in both Khuzestani Arabic and English. I have learned so much, Thanks. It was professional, beautifully crafted and straight to the point. Level zero of Contrastive Analysis is Transfer which means “no difference or contrast is present between the two languages; the learner can simply transfer a sound from the native language to the target language” (Keshavarz, 2007). Many dialects have developed other vowels such as e, ə, o, etc. Phonologist emphasize a specific feature of Arabic consonants which they call “emphatic” sounds / dˤ, tˤ, sˤ, ðˤ/ (ض, ط, ص, ظ). With regard to the roots, Arabic is the Semitic language of the Arabs, written from right to left in a cursive script. Almost all soft consonants like /t/, ta (ت), /d/, del (د), /dh/, dhel (ذ) are like the English counterparts, and hard sounds as/T/ “taw” (ط), /D/, Dod (ض), /DH/, DHa (ظ) are produced with more power, making the articulation deeper and stronger (Javed, 2013). There is also the use of glottal stops before initial vowels. bilabial – sounds which are created with the help of upper and lower lips due to their conjunction : /p/, /b/, and /m/ in English, /b/ ب, /m/م, and . How Many Letters Are in the Arabic Alphabet? The following list ranks the most common languages by the number of sounds they use. It is worth noting that this study is pedagogical and aimed at predicting and solving learners’ problems. Differentiation in families influences the structure, spelling, grammar, phonology, and morphology of both languages. Two sounds are different if they are perceived to constitute two distinct phonemes by native speakers. These comprise the examples of /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ in English and /ʒ/ج in Arabic. Two sounds are different if they are perceived to constitute two distinct phonemes by native speakers. I will be back again and again. Lateral: The representatives of this group are articulated with the help of partial mouth closure, leaving the narrow ways for the air stream from the tongue sides. Arabic is from the Semitic language family, hence its grammar is very different from English. Moreover, grammatical rules were covered by two major schools of Kufa and Basra still in the 8th century; however, almost every grammar rule has at least one exception ( Sbait, n.d). Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. This article deals primarily with Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is the standard variety shared by educated speakers throughout Arabic-speaking regions. While consonants can at least be described with precise terms and actions, vowels tend to be more of approximations in the IPA. I'm not a fan of French either though. The focus of her study was on certain syntactic features that differ from one dialect to another. As a result, there are over 300 million Arabic speakers in the world. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the official language throughout the Arab world, and, in its written form, it is relatively consistent across national boundaries. The following classification is based mainly on the way and power of air obstruction and is similar for both the Arabic and English languages (Kopczynski, 1993): Regarding the similar classification of the consonant systems in both languages, more attention should be paid to the contrastive differences which cause phonemic and subphonemic problems for learners of languages, for example. document.write(rhs + "\">" + "+1(" + lhs + ")" + rhs + "<\/a>"); of each Arabic consonant help with ... Brief Overview of Arabic The Arabic language is spoken today by over 250 million people in the Middle East and North Africa. The table below illustrates the English consonants. This means that all Arabic words are derived from a "root" set of consonants that contain the base meaning of the word. Three consonants at the beginning of words: /spr/, /str/,/skr/, /stj/, /spl/, /skw/, /skj/ as in skew (this sequence is rare in English). A perceptually distinct sound unit is technically called a phoneme. /p/ as a phoneme in Arabic occurs mostly in dialect as a variation of /b/ that means that learners of standard version do not use it. Considering its family, English is a branch of the Indo-European language family that includes German, Dutch, and Scandinavian. There are also a few sounds that don’t exist in other languages… However, it is important to note that there are sounds that have representation only in one of the languages, or there are similar consonants that exist both in Arabic and English but belong to different groups in classification. However, the major difference is the existence of the sound /ŋ/ in English. English is the official language in 67 sovereign states and is used as an international language of communication all over the world. As it was acknowledged, there are similarities and differences in both languages as not all phonemic units have the corresponding ones in the other language or may belong to other articulation classification. Arabic and English Consonants In Arabic, there are 28 sounds categorized based on the place of articulation as seen in Table 1. Languages have different phonetic inventories. Sounds like the “th” in “there” Meanwhile a series of contrastive studies began to appear. e.g. Some languages use more sounds than others. gen_phone_to_link('support@','thesisleader.com'); People may hear it as a vowel sound. This study attempted to contribute to the knowledge base by: A) Comparing the two vocalic systems, English and Khuzestani Arabic and compare the results using examples. If derivative parts change the word structure, it has to follow the rules according to the stem part of the word. : digest (noun) – digest (verb). These four consonants are transferred from Persian into Khuzestani Arabic. Comparative studies in linguistics have a long history. A:/s ¬»:b ¬»:l/ “ways” /q ¬»:bal/ “kisses”. However, unlike in English, in Arabic… Depending on your accent and how thinly you slice them, there are about 20 vowels and 24 consonants. Despite the variety of forms and dialects of both languages, the analysis will focus on literary forms, Modern Standard Arabic and Standard English, which are used for official documentation, speeches, literature, media, and cultural events. The hardest issue was to coordinate Arabic sounds in writing as different researches may use a different system of symbols. Some points of these authors as well as their classifications did not identically match. S a universal language, 8 ) /Å›/: very close to /s/ but sharper e.g a. Najdi – spoken by about 22 million people in this province speaking in a script! Are quite similar in pronunciation of both the Arabic alphabet has 28,. 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